CARDIAC Surgery

CARDIAC Surgery

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ORGAN CARDIAC Surgery AT WORLD CLASS HOSPITALS IN INDIA

Most advanced Surgical Expertise includes

Highly skilled team of Nephrologists and Urologists, most of them educated and trained abroad at leading hospitals and have gained valuable knowledge, skills and experience to deliver clinical outcomes at par with global standards.

NABH and JCI accredited world class hospitals having state of the art facilities.

Ultra Modern Laminar Air Flow Operation Theatres

designed as per international standards with central supply and laminar airflow, stainless steel cladding, on walls and epoxy coating on floor for electro static and infection free environment.

Ultra Modern Laminar Air Flow Operation Theatres

designed as per international standards with central supply and laminar airflow, stainless steel cladding, on walls and epoxy coating on floor for electro static and infection free environment.

Ultra Modern Laminar Air Flow Operation Theatres

designed as per international standards with central supply and laminar airflow, stainless steel cladding, on walls and epoxy coating on floor for electro static and infection free environment.

Ultra Modern Laminar Air Flow Operation Theatres

designed as per international standards with central supply and laminar airflow, stainless steel cladding, on walls and epoxy coating on floor for electro static and infection free environment.

Cardiac Surgery in India

Cardiac Surgery in India

Cardiac surgery is the surgery performed on heart. The surgery is done by specialized cardiac surgeons to treat various complications and problems. These complications may be congenital, ischemic, valvular heart diseases or even heart transplantation. Cardiac operations are considered risky even though its results are often wonderful. Surgeries may be used to replace or repair heart valves & structures, implant medical devices or replace a damaged heart with a healthy one.
With the advancement of technology, the risks involved in these surgeries have been substantially curbed. Chances of success are much higher if there are no other implications. We have a long experience in treating heart patients and assisting them with complex surgeries. We pride ourselves to be front runners in the emerging era of cardiac surgeries in India.

 

CABG

In order to treat coronary heart diseases, the coronary artery bypass graft surgery is performed. The coronary arteries are responsible for supplying oxygen and nutrients to the heart muscles. When fatty material builds up inside these arteries, the supply gets limited due to the narrowed artery. The most common procedure for the surgery is bypassing the blocked graft or artery. The artery can be taken from chest or legs and even wrist. There are certain risks involved, which are discussed prior to the operation.

 

AVR/MVR

In most of the cases, the valve replacement surgery is carried out on an open heart. The surgeon opens the chest and sews new valve in place of the diseases valve. The valve may be aortic or mitral. The mitral valve replacement is usually done to cure narrowing or the leakage of the mitral valve. Same reasons are there for the aortic valve too and the valves are replaced when they are no longer working correctly.

 

Pediatric Cardiac Surgeries

Generally this consists of surgeries in children that are born with heart defects or the heart diseases that they get after birth. It is not always urgent to carry out such surgeries in children. Sometimes, children can wait for months or even years. These defects can occur right after the birth or years late. It is possible that instead of one surgery, a series of treatments are required for the total well-being.

 

ASD/VSD Closures

If the septum wall that separates the upper two chambers of the heart is absent, the oxygen rich blood can mix with the poorly oxygenated blood. This is known as atrial septal defect. If a large hole or opening is present on the wall, then surgery is a must. The same happens for ventricles where a hole allows blood to pass from left to right side and vice versa. Such defects are usually found by birth and can be treated by closures.

COMPREHENSIVE RANGE OF ADVANCED SERVICES OFFERED BY HEALTH & HOLIDAYS

Our staff is sensitive to the needs of the patients and stand with you every step of the way.  They are capable to deliver assistance 24*7 in case of emergencies.

  • Pre-arrival, no-obligation free quote for your medical condition along with consultations and selection of best doctor/hospital

  • Complete assistance in making the right decisions when choosing the best procedure and full support during your stay at the hospital

Pre – Surgery

It is very important that no signs of cold, flu, fever, chill or even a runny nose are present before the surgery. A full body checkup along with the past medical history is performed. All the medicines previously taken are enlisted and reviewed. A person is generally admitted just a day before or the same day of the surgery. The doctor may take blood, urine and X-ray tests to take an update over the patient’s health.

Post – Surgery

The after effects of cardiac surgery are considered normal. One may experience chest pain, swollen chest or muscular pain but are curable by medicines. Mood swings, loss of appetite, constipation and sleeping disorders may also arise, but they go automatically with time. The doctor decides a schedule for regular check-ups so that recovery can be made faster.

Balloon Valvuplasty

What is Balloon Valvuplasty?
Balloon valvuloplasty is a type of minimally invasive procedure in which a diminished heart valve is stretched open using a catheter with an inflatable balloon at its tip.
The catheter is inserted through the groin artery and is slowly guided by the physician until it reaches the heart valve. The balloon is then inflated, enlarging the valve opening.

Conditions that are treated with Balloon Valvuplasty:-
Balloon Valvuplasty can be working  to treat valve stenosis (narrowing of the heart valves) in children and adults.
The  purpose of this  procedure is to improve valve function and blood flow.
This procedure is normally  considered for pulmonary valves stenosis ,In children.

It may be used for mitral valve stenosis in adults, however because the stenosis frequently re-occurs in adult patients with valvular diseases, then it is approved  only as an emergency rescue for patients who are not candidates for valve replacement.

Who usually performs the Balloon Valvuplasty?
An interventional cardiologist, a vasular surgeon or an interventional radiologist.

Is it painful?
When the balloon is inflated, you may feel pain. The pain is normally temporary, but you should always inform your physician about any pain.

Duration of procedure/surgery :up to 4 hours

Days admitted :1-3 days at the hospital.

Anesthesia :Local anesthesia

Recovery :If all went well, you will be able to return to your normal activities a few days after your discharge from the hospital.

Risks :Balloon valvuplasty can have serious problems , and you should discuss them with your physician.

 

Heart Bypass Surgery

What does CABG or Heart Bypass surgery Mean?

CABG stands for Coronary artery bypass graft. CABG is a surgical process whereby a surgeon takes a vein or artery from a patient’s chest, arm or leg and grafts it on to the blocked artery. In this results normal blood flows to the heart muscles.

Types of surgery are available:-

  • Minimal Invasive Coronary Artery Bypass Surgery
    For some patients, minimal invasive coronary artery bypass surgery may be an option. During this surgery, smaller chest and graft removal incisions are used. This enhances the recovery rate and lessens the risk of infection.
  • Off-pump Bypass Surgery
    This is also called as ‘beating heart surgery’, and it is carried out whilst the heart is still beating. The surgeon uses state-of-the-art equipments to stabilize sections of the heart and blocked artery, whilst the rest of the heart continues its normal function.

Duration of surgery or procedure: CABG or heart bypass surgery generally takes from 3 to 5 hours.

Days admitted: If your CABG or heart bypass surgery has been planned, you may be admitted into the hospital in the morning or afternoon before your surgery. On average, the hospital stay after a coronary artery bypass surgery is between five and seven days.

Anesthesia:  General anesthesia.

Recovery: Generally, patients recovering from CABG or heart bypass surgery can take between 6 to 12 weeks. Not so much recovery time is required for minimal invasive heart surgery and off-pump heart surgery.

Patients can start again normal sexual activity, but should refrain from positions that may put too much strain on the chest or upper arms. Normally, you may return to work around six weeks after recovery or sooner if your job is non-strenuous.

Risks: In general, the mortality connected to CABG or heart bypass is 3-4%. Heart attacks take place in 5-10% of patients, either before or after CABG or heart bypass surgery. And strokes account for 1-2% of cases, normally in elderly patients.
Mortality and various complications are heightened in the following cases:
– Age (70 years)
– Diabetes
– Chronic lung disease and kidney failure
– Disease blocking the left main coronary artery

After care: The incision should be kept dry and clean and protected from projection and scratches.
Swelling or aching in the legs may be experienced. Support stockings may need to be worn to help reduce the swelling. And walking daily will help improve circulation and lesson swelling.
The patient may also need to make lifestyle changes that may include: giving up smoking, weight control, dietary changes, participate in a monitored exercise program supervised by a professional, take prescribed medicine, follow-up visits to health care providers.

 

 

Coronary Angiography

 

What does coronary angiography mean?
Coronary angiography is a type of procedure which is used to examine the coronary arteries. Coronary arteries are a type of the arteries that carry fresh blood from your heart to your organs.

Coronary angiogram is performed by applying a technique called cardiac catheterization, which includes using a catheter (a long, flexible, plastic tube) to reach your heart. The catheter is slotted through your groin or arm arteries.

The purpose of Coronary Angiography
If any coronary arteries are blocked then the angiography test can show, where they are blocked, and the severity of the blockages.

Is it painful?
You will be under local anesthesia and usually may feel little or no pain.

 

Duration of procedure/surgery: 30 to 60 minutes

Days admitted: The procedure is done as a day surgery, and in some cases you may stay overnight.

Anesthesia :  Local anesthesia

Recovery : A few hours at the hospital.

Risks : The risk of serious complications is low, ranging from 1 in 500 to 1 in 1,000.

 

Coronary Angioplasty

What does Coronary Angioplasty mean?
Coronary angioplasty is a type of surgical procedure that is used to open coronary arteries that are blocked. The blood flow to the heart is improved after coronary angioplasty.
Coronary angioplasty helps in upgrading symptoms of coronary heart disease such as chest pain, discomfort, and short breath. Coronary angioplasty also decreases chances of heart attacks caused by blockage in the coronary artery. The blockage is generally caused by a blood clot that develops in the area where the plaque has formed.

How Coronary Angioplasty Surgery is performed?

  • Coronary angioplasty is generally usedin a catheterization laboratory.
  • The patient is given heparin to stop blood clotting.
  • A small incision is shaped in the patient’s wrist or groin.
  • A contrast, which is a special dye, is injected into the artery through the catheter. The contrast is a colorless liquid that contains iodine whichis visible on an X-ray.
  • The blockage in the artery is visible with the help of the contrast. The patient may feel a warm sensation when the contrast is injected.
  • Afterwards, a wire is pushed into the catheter and to the blocked area of the artery.
  • A small balloon, determining approximately 2cm by 3 mm in diameter, is pushed along with the wire and placed across the blockage.
  • The balloon is slowly inflated bring about the artery to widen up and allowing easy blood flow. At this moment, the patient may feel some chest pain.
  • A stent, which is a minuscule wire mesh tube, may be pushed and placed in a collapsed form. When the balloon is inflated, the stent fits in the artery in an expanded form.
  • After this, the balloon is deflated and withdrawn together with the wire and catheter. If the stent is placed, it is left inside the artery.
  • Once the catheter is removed, the incision site is firmly pressed for approximately 20 minutes. This is done to ensure that the artery is closed and bleeding is stopped.
  • The incision site is sealed with an Angioseal.
  • If the incision is at the groin, a tube may be left for a few hours to allow any heparin to disappear.
  • If the incision is at the wrist, a firm band is fixed over the artery for some hours.

How to Prepare for Coronary Angioplasty:

  • smoking causes more risks of artery blockage and slows the recovery process ,So the patient should stopit.
  • Before the surgery, The patient should not eat or drink anything for about four hours.
  • A few days before the surgery, The doctor may ask the patient to stop taking certain medications.
  • Before the surgery ,the patient needs to undergo a physical examination and some blood and urine tests.
  • The doctor may also recommend electrocardiogram and a chest X-ray.

Duration of procedure/surgery: 1 to 2 hours

Days admitted : One day or  Overnight stay at the hospital

Anesthesia :Local anesthesia

Recovery :– The patient stays in a special care unit after the surgery for a few hours or overnight.
– The patient should lie still for a few hours to allow the artery to be closed completely.
– The patient’s heart rate and blood pressure are examined.
– After a week, The patient can start again normal activities.
– Medication may be allotted to help patient becoming relax and check artery spasms.

Risks :– A few hours, Chest pain and discomfort after the surgery.
– Bruising and pain at the incision site.
– Bleeding from the artery
– Narrowing of the arteries that are treated with a stent
– Allergic reaction to the contrast material, causing rash, swelling or breathing difficulty
– Blockage of the coronary artery during the procedure
– Displacement of a blood clot or blockage material by the catheter, which may block the artery and cause heart attack or stroke
– Injury to the artery

After care :– For many days, The patient is required to avoid heavy physical activity after coronary angioplasty surgery.
– For a week ,The patient should not lift heavy things or get involved in strenuous activities after the surgery.
– For about two weeks, Any sports should be avoided after the surgery.
– For about one year If the patient has a stent placed during the surgery, an anticoagulant may be required.
– Dental procedures may also need to be avoided to prevent endocarditis.

The patient needs to make some lifestyle changes such as
– Dietary changes

– Stress control
– Stopping Smoking
– Physical exercises
– Weight reduction
– Cardiac rehabilitation

If the following symptoms are detected The patient should contact the doctor immediately:
– Change in color or temperature of the limbs that were used during surgery

– Fever
– Weakness
– Breath shortness
– Chest pain

 

Heart Bypass Surgery

Heart Bypass

Bypass surgery, also called coronary artery bypass graft (CABG) surgery, is a surgical procedure performed to relieve angina and reduce the risk of death from coronary artery disease.
Arteries or veins are grafted from different parts of the patient’s body to the coronary arteries in order to bypass the atherosclerotic narrowings and improve the blood supply to the coronary circulation supplying the heart muscle.
This surgery is usually performed with the heart stopped, necessitating the usage of cardiopulmonary bypass.
Bypass surgery is the most common major surgery in the USA, with over 500,000 surgeries performed anually.

New techniques for CABG:
– OCABG (off-pump CABG), is a technique to perform CABG on a beating heart.
– MICABG (minimally invasive CABG) is a technique where the incision is smaller, reducing some of the risks of this surgery.

Duration of procedure/surgery :2-6 hours, depending on the number of bypasses to be performed.

Days admitted :Usually 4-7 days (3-4 days in case of a minimally invasive CABG)

Anesthesia :General anesthesia

Recovery :You might be able to move around a few days after the surgery, according to your status and the doctor’s advice.
you will be able to get back to work within 12 weeks.

Risks :Between 2-5% of patients have some sort of complications.
As with any surgical procedure, there are risks of infection and heavy bleeding, as well as risks associated with general anesthesia.

 

 

Open Heart Surgery

What is an Open Heart Surgery?
Open heart surgery is a type of procedure that includes opening the walls of the chest, and executing surgery on the heart muscles, arteries or other associated structures.

 The different types of Open Heart Surgery treatment:-
Coronary artery bypass grafting or CABG  is the most popular type of heart surgery. During a CABG procedure, surgeons use healthy veins obtained from another part of the body to, go around blocked arteries.

Duration of procedure/surgery: Normally between 3 to 5 hours.

Days admitted : However, in normal cases, a hospital stays of up to 4 days or longer can be expected.

Generally, your stay in hospital will vary, depending on the post-operative condition of your heart.

 

Anesthesia: General Anesthesia

Recovery: for recovery ,a period of 6 to 12 weeks is needed. Doctors and nurses will keep a close monitoring on your heart rate, blood pressure, breathing, and also the incision area for any abnormal signs While you’re in hospital,.

Risks: Heart surgery is not without its risks, these can include the following: – Infection, fever, and even swelling – Bleeding. – Irregular heartbeats – Difficulties focusing or thinking clearly. – A reaction to the medication used to put you to sleep whilst the procedure is being performed – Damage to tissues in the heart, kidneys, and lungs. Death. Generally, the risks of an open heart procedure increases for people who: – Are older over 70 – Have had multiple heart surgeries – Suffer from conditions such as high blood pressure, diabetes, kidney disease and lung disease.

After care:  for the success of your surgery, you may consult and go for  regular checkups with your doctor. You may need to make diet and lifestyle changes and takes various medicines to help you stay healthy. Your doctor may suggest that you join a cardiac rehabilitation program.

 

Paediatric Cardiac Surgery

What is Pediatric Cardiac Surgery?

This is a type of surgery of the heart to repair heart defects in a child. Congenital refers to a defect that a child is born with. The defects may be congenital of heart disease that a child gets after birth.
What is a Pediatric Heart Surgeon?

A pediatric cardiac surgeon is a heart surgeon who has special training in treating and managing heart diseases and conditions in children. A pediatric heart surgeon treats complex congenital heart defects in newborns, children, and young person, as well as adults. Because of the small size of children pediatric heart surgeons have special skills needed to provide the best possible care to the children.

Training of Pediatric Heart Surgeons

Pediatric heart surgeons are medical doctors who have completed at least 4 years of medical school, 5 years of general surgical residency, and 2-3 years of cardio-thoracic residency and an additional 2-4 year of training in pediatric cardiac surgery.
Types of cardiac surgical procedures

  • Open-heart surgery: This is when the surgeon opens up the chest and performs surgery on the muscles, valves or arteries of the heart. Open heart surgery is also referred to as traditional heart surgery. A heart-lung bypass machine is normally used during open heart surgery. It involves the doctor making an incision through the sternum. The child is given general anesthesia. Tubes are used to re-route the blood through a heart-lung bypass machine. This machine adds oxygen to the blood and keeps the blood warm and circulating through the rest of the body while the surgeon repairs the heart. Using the heart-lung bypass machine allows the heart to be stopped so that the surgeon can repair the heart muscles, valves or blood vessels. After the repair is complete, the heart is started again and the machine is removed. The open are then closed.
  • Thoracotomy: This type of a procedure includes making an opening on the side of the chest, between the ribs. Thoracotomy is also known as closed heart surgery. This surgery is performed using special instruments and a camera.
  • Others: Another way to rebuild heart defects is by pushing small tubes into an artery in the leg and passes them up to the heart. However, not all heart defects can be repaired this way.

Symptoms that indicate that surgery is needed are:

  • Blue or gray skin, lips or nail beds.
  • Difficulty breathing because the lungs are congested or filled with fluid.
  • These symptoms indicate that there is lack of oxygen in the blood.
  • Problems with the heart rate or heart rhythm
  • Sleeping or Poor feeding
  • Lack of growth and development in a child

 

 

Before the Procedure

  • If your child is older try and talk to them before the procedure. Try and explain the procedure and why it is important to have it. Tell your doctor of any medications that your child is taking including supplements.
  • Your child may require different tests which include:
  • Blood tests
  • X-rays of the chest area
  • Echocardiogram (ECHO, or ultrasound of the heart)
  • Electrocardiogram (EKG, or ECG)
  • Cardiac catheterization
  • History and physical

After the Procedure

  • Most children who have open-heart surgery require 2-4 days in the intensive care unit right after surgery. During their time in the ICU, your child will have:
  • One or more small tubes in a vein (IV line) to give fluids and medicines.
  • A tube in the airway and a respirator to help with breathing. Your child will be kept sedated while on the respirator.
  • A small tube in an
  • 1 or 2 chest tubes to drain air, blood, and fluid from the chest cavity.
  • A tube through the nose into the stomach to empty the stomach and deliver medicines and feedings for several days.
  • A tube in the bladder to drain and measure the urine for several days.
  • Many electrical lines and tubes used to monitor the child.
  • By the time your child leaves the ICU, most of the tubes and wires will be removed and the child can begin resuming their regular activities.

Risks :Bleeding during or after surgery, Bad reactions to medications, Difficulty breathing, Postoperative infection, Blood clots (thrombi), Pneumonia, Air bubbles (air emboli) Heart attack, Heartbeat problems, (arrhythmias) Stroke

 

Aortic Valve Replacement

Aortic Valve Replacement

Aortic valve replacement is a type of cardiac procedure in which the patient’s aortic valve is replaced by a different  heart valve.

Aortic valve replacement can be done either by an  open heart surgery, or by using a catheter (PAVR – percutaneous aortic valve replacement).

The replacement valves used in the procedure are either natural (biologic) or artificial (mechanical).

Days admitted: The total stay required in the hospital is usually between 5 and 12 days.

Anesthesia: Genaral Anaesthesia

Recovery : Aortic valve replacement generally takes a few weeks to several months for recovery , depending on your health after the surgery.

Risks : Average death rate  is 1% to 5%, depending on the health and age of the patient, as well as the skill of the surgeon.

 

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